Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in leukocytes is the most common form of clonal mosaicism, caused by dysregulation in cell-cycle and DNA damage response pathways. Previous genetic studies have focussed on identifying common variants associated with LOY, which we now extend to rarer, protein-coding variation using exome sequences from 82,277 male UK Biobank participants. We find that loss of function of two genes-CHEK2 and GIGYF1-reach exome-wide significance. Rare alleles in GIGYF1 have not previously been implicated in any complex trait, but here loss-of-function carriers exhibit six-fold higher susceptibility to LOY (OR = 5.99 [3.04-11.81], p = 1.3 × 10-10). These same alleles are also associated with adverse metabolic health, including higher susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes (OR = 6.10 [3.51-10.61], p = 1.8 × 10-12), 4 kg higher fat mass (p = 1.3 × 10-4), 2.32 nmol/L lower serum IGF1 levels (p = 1.5 × 10-4) and 4.5 kg lower handgrip strength (p = 4.7 × 10-7) consistent with proposed GIGYF1 enhancement of insulin and IGF-1 receptor signalling. These associations are mirrored by a common variant nearby associated with the expression of GIGYF1. Our observations highlight a potential direct connection between clonal mosaicism and metabolic health.
Exome association studies to date have generally been underpowered to systematically evaluate the phenotypic impact of very rare coding variants. We leveraged extensive haplotype sharing between 49,960 exome-sequenced UK Biobank participants and the remainder of the cohort (total n ≈ 500,000) to impute exome-wide variants with accuracy R2 > 0.5 down to minor allele frequency (MAF) ~0.00005. Association and fine-mapping analyses of 54 quantitative traits identified 1,189 significant associations (P < 5 × 10-8) involving 675 distinct rare protein-altering variants (MAF < 0.01) that passed stringent filters for likely causality. Across all traits, 49% of associations (578/1,189) occurred in genes with two or more hits; follow-up analyses of these genes identified allelic series containing up to 45 distinct 'likely-causal' variants. Our results demonstrate the utility of within-cohort imputation in population-scale genome-wide association studies, provide a catalog of likely-causal, large-effect coding variant associations and foreshadow the insights that will be revealed as genetic biobank studies continue to grow.
Zekavat SM, Lin S-H, Bick AG, Liu A, Paruchuri K, Wang C, Uddin MM, Ye Y, Yu Z, Liu X, Kamatani Y, Bhattacharya R, Pirruccello JP, Pampana A, Loh P-R, Kohli P, McCarroll SA, Kiryluk K, Neale B, Ionita-Laza I, Engels EA, Brown DW, Smoller JW, Green R, Karlson EW, Lebo M, Ellinor PT, Weiss ST, Daly MJ, Daly MJ, Daly MJ, Terao C, Zhao H, Ebert BL, Reilly MP, Ganna A, Machiela MJ, Genovese G, Natarajan P. Hematopoietic mosaic chromosomal alterations increase the risk for diverse types of infection. Nat Med 2021;27(6):1012-1024.Abstract
Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking age to infectious disease risk are incompletely understood. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from genotyping of blood-derived DNA, are structural somatic variants indicative of clonal hematopoiesis, and are associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality. Here, we show that mCAs predispose to diverse types of infections. We analyzed mCAs from 768,762 individuals without hematological cancer at the time of DNA acquisition across five biobanks. Expanded autosomal mCAs were associated with diverse incident infections (hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.36; P = 1.8 × 10-7), including sepsis (HR 2.68; 95% CI = 2.25-3.19; P = 3.1 × 10-28), pneumonia (HR 1.76; 95% CI = 1.53-2.03; P = 2.3 × 10-15), digestive system infections (HR 1.51; 95% CI = 1.32-1.73; P = 2.2 × 10-9) and genitourinary infections (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.41; P = 3.7 × 10-4). A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 loci, which were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. These results suggest that mCAs are a marker of impaired immunity and confer increased predisposition to infections.
Interactions between genetic variants-epistasis-is pervasive in model systems and can profoundly impact evolutionary adaption, population disease dynamics, genetic mapping, and precision medicine efforts. In this work, we develop a model for structured polygenic epistasis, called coordinated epistasis (CE), and prove that several recent theories of genetic architecture fall under the formal umbrella of CE. Unlike standard epistasis models that assume epistasis and main effects are independent, CE captures systematic correlations between epistasis and main effects that result from pathway-level epistasis, on balance skewing the penetrance of genetic effects. To test for the existence of CE, we propose the even-odd (EO) test and prove it is calibrated in a range of realistic biological models. Applying the EO test in the UK Biobank, we find evidence of CE in 18 of 26 traits spanning disease, anthropometric, and blood categories. Finally, we extend the EO test to tissue-specific enrichment and identify several plausible tissue-trait pairs. Overall, CE is a dimension of genetic architecture that can capture structured, systemic forms of epistasis in complex human traits.
Although germline de novo copy number variants (CNVs) are known causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the contribution of mosaic (early-developmental) copy number variants (mCNVs) has not been explored. In this study, we assessed the contribution of mCNVs to ASD by ascertaining mCNVs in genotype array intensity data from 12,077 probands with ASD and 5,500 unaffected siblings. We detected 46 mCNVs in probands and 19 mCNVs in siblings, affecting 2.8-73.8% of cells. Probands carried a significant burden of large (>4-Mb) mCNVs, which were detected in 25 probands but only one sibling (odds ratio = 11.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.5-84.2, P = 7.4 × 10). Event size positively correlated with severity of ASD symptoms (P = 0.016). Surprisingly, we did not observe mosaic analogues of the short de novo CNVs recurrently observed in ASD (eg, 16p11.2). We further experimentally validated two mCNVs in postmortem brain tissue from 59 additional probands. These results indicate that mCNVs contribute a previously unexplained component of ASD risk.